This is the ninth in a series on The Harvard Classics; the rest of the posts are available here. Volume IX: Cicero, Pliny the Younger
“None but those who are skilled in painting, statuary, or the plastic art,” writes Pliny the Younger, “can form a right judgment of any performance in those respective modes of representation.”
This statement can be reduced to the universal statement that the ability to perform is a necessary prerequisite for the ability to judge a performance. To some extent, this claim seems intuitively true. But it is not necessarily so.
Roger Ebert was an extremely popular and well-respected film critic. But did his ability to judge acting and filmmaking come from his own skill as an actor and filmmaker? I think not. Clearly, a great deal of effort was put into studying the art of film, but not necessarily study of the practice of film.
Similarly, one could imagine a great student of the visual arts who, due to some physical disability, is unable to paint. Without ever putting brush to canvas, such a student could still know well every theory of color, composition, and aesthetics. What could keep such a person from being a great judge of paintings?
Even if it is not strictly necessary, at least some practice in any given art is helpful for truly appreciating all of the skill required to excel therein. Knowing first-hand how difficult it is to become competent may provide valuable perspective on what must go into works of real genius.
My single attempt at brewing beer was not exceptionally successful, though it was far from a failure. I would not claim to be skilled in brewing. Yet I consider myself competent to form a judgment about beers brewed by others. At the very least, I can form the most important judgment of all: do I like it enough to have another?
Beer of the week: Citradelic Tangerine IPA – The aroma of this New Belgium IPA is overwhelmingly of tangerine. The flavor is much the same, but with the lingering tingle of citrusy hops. It is enjoyable, but you have to really like tangerines.
Reading of the week: Letter to Attius Clemens by Pliny the Younger – This letter is primarily a glowing recommendation of a contemporary philosopher known as Euphrates the Stoic. Unfortunately, none of Euphrates’ work has survived.
Question for the week: Pliny’s statement about judging the arts assumes that there actually is “a right judgment” of art. Is that a valid assumption?
This is the fourth in a series on Franklin’s moral improvement plan, the rest of the posts will be available here.
ORDER: Let all your things have their places; let each part of your business have its time.
Order is the key to success at work. Like a finely tuned machine, an employee who is well organized will smoothly and comfortably move through each task as it comes. At leisure, however, order may be regarded as constraining. If one meticulously plans out his free time, is it free time in any real sense? So there you have it: order in work and disorder in leisure.
Well, maybe. Pliny the Younger seems to think that such a view is backwards. According to Pliny, “a little confusion and disarrangement is all well enough” in one’s work, but leisure time “should be composed and uniform.”
Disarrangement is a necessary component of work. Changes in what the boss or client requires, unforeseen difficulties, market reversals, and so on make business a more or less constant battle against disorder. And, although the result is often stressful, the disorder of work is also the impetus for advancement and discovery. Each new problem represents a new opportunity to improve one’s methods or streamline one’s processes. So if one is able to remain perfectly ordered in his employment, he is probably under-performing.
On the other hand, leisure is best when there is no disorder. And to avoid disorder, one must plan. It is a rare person indeed who has never felt like a vacation or weekend was wasted simply by not having a plan. That is not to say that one must be constantly active in one’s leisure, only that to make the best use of leisure, one must be orderly with one’s time. Lying in bed all weekend or binge-watching a television show may be a good use of free time, but only if one has actually chosen that course of action rather than fallen into it for lack of a better plan. Naps, detours, impulsive decisions, can all be part of an orderly free time. The key is to be conscious of the limited time available, and to make decisions that maximize enjoyment of that time.
Beer of the week: Firestone Pils – This pilsner comes from Firestone Walker in California. There is not much aroma to speak of, just a hint of lemony hops. The flavor is rather simple, just a bit of malt and more of the hops from the smell. It is refreshing and tasty, if a bit simple.
Reading of the week: Letter to Calvisius by Pliny the Younger: In this letter, Pliny describes the lifestyle of Titus Vestricius Spurinna. At the time, Spurinna was retired from government and the military, and had settled into a comfortable and highly regular home routine. Spurinna made time each day for exercise, socializing, writing, and relaxation. And because he made the most of his retirement, Pliny wrote, “there is no man whom I would sooner choose for my model, for nothing can be more perfect in arrangement than his mode of life.”
Question of the week: Which is most important: well organized time, well organized possessions, or well organized thoughts?
“It is wonderful how the mind is stirred and quickened into activity by brisk bodily exercise.” – Pliny the Younger
The weather is finally right for outdoor activity and outdoor beers. Throw around the generic plastic flying disc toy. Jog through the park. Grill up some burgers. Crack a cold one and drink to your own vitality. Or, if you prefer a more peaceful outing:
“There is something, too, in the solemnity of the venerable woods with which one is surrounded, together with that profound silence which is observed on these occasions, that forcibly disposes the mind to meditation.” – Pliny the Younger
Stroll leisurely through the forrest. Read a book in the shade of an ancient tree. Compose original verses on the nature of springtime. Casually sip your beer and envelope yourself “in the solemnity of the venerable woods.” Beer of the Week: Saranac Wild Hop Pils – This American pilsner is brewed with Belma hops, a variety of hops that was discovered growing wild in Oregon. The pale gold beer has a nice foamy head that leaves good lacing on the glass. Grassy and slightly floral hops dominate the flavor, but it is not especially strong. Overall, this is a light, crisp beer that seems well suited to drinking in large quantities.
Reading of the Week: Letter To Cornelius Tacitus by Pliny the Younger – Pliny went hunting one day (much out of keeping with his genteel and bookish character.) While in the forest, he made more use of his pencil than of his spear. “Whenever you hunt, to take your tablets along with you, as well as your basket and bottle, for be assured you will find Minerva no less fond of traversing the hills than Diana.”
Question of the Week: Is there a better place than the forrest for calm reflection?