This is the first in a series of posts on family (and Sierra Nevada beers.) The rest of the posts can be found here.
Very early in his Meditations, the philosopher and emperor Marcus Aurelius states that he learned “to speak well of teachers.” The first book of Meditations makes it abundantly clear that he learned that lesson well. The entire book is a list of his teachers–including professional tutors and rhetoricians such as Junius Rusticus and Alexander Peloplaton–from whom he learned important lessons. They taught him “to read carefully, and not to be satisfied with a superficial understanding of a book;” and “to refrain from fault-finding.” Marcus gives credit to others for nearly every good characteristic and habit he has.
As important as his professional tutors were, Marcus’s list begins and ends with his family. From his grandfather, Marcus “learned good morals and the government of [his] temper.” From his mother, he learned “piety and beneficence, and abstinence, not only from evil deeds, but even from evil thoughts.” From his (adoptive) brother, he “received the idea of a polity in which there is the same law for all, a polity administered with regard to equal rights and equal freedom of speech, and the idea of a kingly government which respects most of all the freedom of the governed.”
For most of us, our family members are our first and most important teachers. From them, we learn everything from walking and language to ethics and societal norms. Apparently, that’s even true of Roman emperors.
Beer of the week: Sierra Nevada Coffee Stout – This very dark brown brew has a thin, tan head. The aroma is understated, with dark roast notes, including a hint of soy sauce. The beer is smooth and bittersweet, with flavors of chocolate, caramel, and (naturally) coffee.
Reading of the week: Meditations by Marcus Aurelius – Marcus recognizes that all he is and all he has he owes to his family, his friends, and the gods. It would be so easy for somebody as powerful and accomplished as Marcus to take all the credit for his own success, but he was taught better.
Question for the week: Is there anything that you have entirely taught yourself?
This is the second in a series on The Harvard Classics; the rest of the posts will be available here. Volume II: Plato, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius
The non-aggression principle (or “NAP”) is an important concept in natural rights theory and contemporary libertarian political theory. Essentially, the non-aggression principle holds that one may not forcibly interfere with another or his property. I’ve heard it expressed as: you are free to do as you like so long as you keep your fist away from my nose and your hands out of my pocket.
Wikipedia helpfully lists several other formulations over time:
“Being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions.” – John Locke
“Rightful liberty is unobstructed action according to our will within limits drawn around us by the equal rights of others. I do not add ‘within the limits of the law’, because law is often but the tyrant’s will, and always so when it violates the rights of the individual…. No man has a natural right to commit aggression on the equal rights of another, and this is all from which the laws ought to restrain him.” – Thomas Jefferson
“Every man is free to do that which he wills, provided he infringes not the equal freedom of any other man.” – Herbert Spencer
“The only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others.” – John Stuart Mill
“No one may threaten or commit violence (‘aggress’) against another man’s person or property. Violence may be employed only against the man who commits such violence; that is, only defensively against the aggressive violence of another. In short, no violence may be employed against a nonaggressor. Here is the fundamental rule from which can be deduced the entire corpus of libertarian theory.” – Murray Rothbard
Sounds pretty reasonable to me…
Beer of the week: Mastne Cieszyńskie – This is a really good Polish ale. Mastne Cieszyńskie is light brown and a little bit hazy. The smell is classic and malty with a hint of raisin. The flavor follows the aroma. This is a very enjoyable ale.
Reading for the week: Crito by Plato, 44e to 48d – The fact that Plato is in the same volume of The Harvard Classics as Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius seems to indicate the editor of the series sided with the Stoics in the ongoing battle for what school of thought gets to claim Socrates as its own. In this excerpt from Crito, the title character is trying to convince Socrates to escape from Athens, where he has been sentenced to death. In part, he argues that if Socrates choses to die when he might otherwise live, he will be committing an act of violence upon his friends and children.
Question for the week: Particularly in the the formulations by Locke and Jefferson, it is clear that the NAP relies on an underlying assumption of equality. Without that assumption, can the principle still be compelling?