Economics and morality have strange intersections. Many people cannot help but assign moral value to commercial transactions. “It is wrong for athletes to be paid so much while the beer vendor is paid so little.” “It is wrong for bottled water to cost so much.” “It is wrong to sell mustard gas at any price.” For the first two examples, the complaint might as well be against the laws of supply and demand themselves. Baseball players make as much money as they do because the demand for top-level athletic ability is very high and the supply is very low. There is relatively little moral ambiguity in that case. The mustard gas example, however, reaches something beyond economics.
In Steinbeck’s East of Eden, Adam’s son Caleb gives him a gift of $15,000. Caleb insists that he came by the money honestly, having invested in bean futures in anticipation of America’s entry into the First World War. Adam refuses the gift. He makes two claims about why he can’t accept the money: first, the money was stolen from the farmers who could have realized that profit themselves if Caleb hadn’t bought the futures; and second, war profiteering is morally reprehensible.
In response to the first of Adam’s objections, Caleb rightfully denies that the farmer’s were robbed. The farmers were paid nearly 60% over market price for their beans. The profit that Caleb realized on his investment only reflected the risk that he took on himself. If the US had not entered the war and bean prices had remained stable, Caleb would have lost a sizable part of his investment.
The second objection, however, is much sticker. Adam is a member of the draft board. He signs orders sending young men to go and die in a foreign land. Profiting from such a terrible thing as war is, in Adam’s mind, utterly unthinkable. This complaint does not go away simply by saying that somebody was going to profit from the war, so why not Caleb? But is selling beans to the army any different from selling mustard gas to the army? Maybe it is all just supply and demand.
It really is hard to think about this rationally because Caleb is so sympathetic. All Caleb wants is his father’s love. He is convinced that he has done a good job, but his gift is rejected. It is so easy to side with Caleb and to find fault with Adam’s rejection, but maybe there really was something wrong with Caleb’s gift. Maybe it was wrong to profit from the war.
Beer of the week: Boot Tread Belgium Amber Ale – This beer comes from Martens NV, brewers of Willianbräu, Hackenberg, Kinroo Blue, and Damburger. Boot Tread is a pretty amber beer available at the discount grocery store down the street. Even a nation with as proud a brewing tradition as Belgium has its cheap beers, but I suspect that this particular brew is for export only. There is a bit of sweet caramel in the aroma, though not much. Overall, this is a standard, inoffensive cheap ale. Not much more to say.
Reading for the week: War is a Racket by Major General Smedley Butler – After a long career as hired muscle for American economic concerns, Butler finally decides to speak out against the military industrial complex. He maintains that Woodrow Wilson went back on his campaign promise to keep the United States out of the First World War to appease American bankers and manufacturers who stood to lose loads of money if Germany won the war. In this chapter, Butler reviews the obscene amounts of money made by the du Ponts, Bethlehem Steel, and other profiteers during the First World War. Needless to say, Caleb’s $15,000 pales in comparison.
Question for the week: Assuming that it is morally wrong to sell mustard gas to the army because it may be used to kill innocent people, is it morally wrong to sell beans to the army because the soldiers who eat the beans may be used to kill innocent people? What about selling beans to the factory worker who makes the gas? What about selling beans to the mechanic who fixes the car of the factory worker who makes the gas? How far removed must the transaction be before it is no longer “profiteering”?
Well, it is October already. I fought the end of summer all through September, but there is just no way around it; autumn is definitely upon us. School is well under way for those of us who measure years from September to May than from January to January. The air is decidedly colder than it was just days ago. And the weather is looking more and more frightful.
Of course there are upsides to autumn. There are beautiful leaves and fresh apples. There are brisk walks in the cool breeze. And of course, there are seasonal beers.
Cooler weather also gives us an excuse to stay in all day and read. Autumn is made for devouring books (and pumpkin pie.) So put on a sweater, crack open a beer and a book, and just be glad it is not winter yet!
Beer of the week: Southern Tier Harvest Ale – This beautiful beer has a fluffy white head that leaves some very nice lacing on the glass. The aroma has slight hints of toffee under the strong smell of hops. The flavor is definitely rich and malty, but it is also very strongly hopped. This beer is not as bitter as most American IPAs, but it still has some bite to it. It also is 6.7% alcohol, which probably contributes to that. This beer is sheer quality; very good stuff.
Reading of the week: The Rape of the Lock, by Alexander Pope – The title seems a bit dark for such a light-hearted fantasy. In this canto, Pope describes flirtation as a battle in the style of Homer or Virgil. “As bold Sir Plume had drawn Clarissa down, Chloe stept in, and kill’d him with a Frown; She smil’d to see the doughty Hero slain, But at her Smile, the Beau reviv’d again.” And all this over a stolen lock of hair!
Question of the week: With harvest ales, pumpkin beers, and Oktoberfest beers, is autumn not the very best season for beer?